Background E-cigarette use has increased rapidly in recent years 1, 2, 3 with nearly 3m users in the UK. There is ongoing debate over whether e-cigarettes are harmful or beneficial to public health. 4,5 Advocates emphasise evidence pointing to lower health risks than from smoking tobacco and for their value as a tool to help people stop smoking.1,2 ,6 Critics express concerns that e-cigarettes might prolong nicotine use and undermine tobacco control.4,5 Concerns that they might encourage smoking among non-smokers and children have not been realised thus far. 1 E-cigarettes are regulated as tobacco-related products via the EU Tobacco Products Directive. 7,8 The regulations restrict nicotine concentration and volume, composition and promotion. 1,9,10,11

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